Animals in Christian art: New terrain?

Dr. Susan Power BrattonChair of Environmental Science Baylor University We think of Christian art as dominated by people – Jesus … Continued

Dr. Susan Power Bratton
Chair of Environmental Science
Baylor University

We think of Christian art as dominated by people – Jesus and his disciples, the Virgin and child and the great saints. But while animals play different roles in the teachings, rituals and cosmology of the diverse range of world religions, our fellow creatures are major figures in the aesthetic expression of the text-oriented religions, as well as in realm of orally transmitted myths and hunter-gathers. The American Academy of Religion now offers sessions on animals and religion at its annual meeting, and recent books have explored animals in the art of international religions such as Islam.

Going back to Christian origins, animals appear in the paintings and carvings associated with Christian burials in the Roman catacombs. Cheerful song birds symbolize the departed souls. Roman art depicts animals of all sorts – sea creatures, large predators like tigers, and even pet dogs. Christian art draws from the same repertoire while selecting some themes over others. Depictions of hunting and animal death are not absent from the earliest Christian art, but they are less common than in art associated with Roman military burials or the cult of Dionysus. Burials with Christian iconography present are more likely to be graced by pastoral scenes, such as sheep drinking from eternally flowing streams. Christian art through the fifth century is “de-militarized.” It, on average, avoids force of arms and glorifying a life fulfilled wearing a helmet, riding a war horse, and slaying lions.

From the mosaics at Ravenna to the stained glass of medieval cathedrals, Christian art is a zoo. River otters, after all, play chess on a column at Naumburg Cathedral in Germany. The ascendancy of a Christian aristocracy infused weapons and hunting back into commissions for frescoes and capitals by the early Middle Ages. The first ascetics, meanwhile, treated these passions as worldly and proved their holiness by caring for injured animals and inviting them into their desert or forest hermitages. For a Celtic or a desert monk to receive the trust and companionship of animals, wild and domestic, was a sign of the coming of God’s kingdom on earth, as predicted by the prophet Isaiah. In the confines of the monastery, the lion or wolf could lie down with the lamb – and the monk. Themes such as ravens feeding Elijah or St. Antony, St. Jerome and his lion, or St. Giles protecting a hind from the huntsmen of the king teach ethics and may carry a thinly disguised political message about the abuse of secular power.

Christian protection of animals is a venerable topic, and long before St. Francis of Assisi preached to the birds and freed captive animals from cages, St. Kevin is reputed is to have patiently allowed a nesting black bird to raise a brood in his hand, upturned for prayer. Francis’s sermon to the birds and his admonition to the wolf of Gubbio declare the value before God of the human poor and disenfranchised. If the birds of the field might receive instruction, and the wolf can repent, how much more can be achieved for the landless and hungry sitting by the gates of the early modern city. Painters such as Giotto and Duccio counted these subjects among their greatest works.

Today’s revival of interest in religion, art and animals is sprouting from multiple roots. My own fascination originates from study of environmental values, including species conservation, in Christian art and literature. Many of the leading contemporary spokespeople alternatively emphasize animal rights, or animal ethics. We are offering a freshman engaged-learning group on Animals and Human Society here at Baylor University this fall, and the faculty mentors include a conservation biologist who studies village protection of sacred monkeys in Nigeria, a pianist responding to music produced by animals, and a wildlife ecologist active in horse rescue and rehabilitation of abused animals. One Baylor student artist, who recently exhibited a painting protesting the impact of poaching on elephants, is demonstrating an ancient ethic exploring new and very daunting terrain.

Dr. Susan Power Bratton is Chair of Environmental Science at Baylor University and author of two books on related topics, “Environmental Values in Christian Art” (State University of New York Press, 2008), and “Christianity, Wilderness and Wildlife” (University of Scranton Press, 2009).

Comments are closed.

Read More Articles

Valle Header Art
My Life Depended on the Very Act of Writing

How I was saved by writing about God and cancer.

shutterstock_188545496
Sociologist: Religion Can Predict Sexual Behavior

“Religion and sex are tracking each other like never before,” says sociologist Mark Regnerus.

5783999789_9d06e5d7df_b
The Internet Is Not Killing Religion. So What Is?

Why is religion in decline in the modern world? And what can save it?

river dusk
Cleaner, Lighter, Closer

What’s a fella got to do to be baptized?

shutterstock_188022491
Magical Thinking and the Canonization of Two Popes

Why Pope Francis is canonizing two popes for all of the world wide web to see.

987_00
An Ayatollah’s Gift to Baha’is, Iran’s Largest Religious Minority

An ayatollah offers a beautiful symbolic gesture against a backdrop of violent persecution.

Screenshot 2014-04-23 11.40.54
Atheists Bad, Christians Good: A Review of “God’s Not Dead”

A smug Christian movie about smug atheists leads to an inevitable happy ending.

shutterstock_134310734
Ten Ways to Make Your Church Autism-Friendly

The author of the Church of England’s autism guidelines shares advice any church can follow.

Pile_of_trash_2
Pope Francis: Stop the Culture of Waste

What is the human cost of our tendency to throw away?

chapel door
“Sometimes You Find Something Quiet and Holy”: A New York Story

In a hidden, underground sanctuary, we were all together for a few minutes in this sweet and holy mystery.

shutterstock_178468880
Mary Magdalene, the Closest Friend of Jesus

She’s been ignored, dismissed, and misunderstood. But the story of Easter makes it clear that Mary was Jesus’ most faithful friend.

sunset-hair
From Passover to Easter: Why I’m Grateful to be Jewish, Christian, and Alive

Passover with friends. Easter with family. It’s almost enough to make you believe in God.

colbert
Top 10 Reasons We’re Glad A Catholic Colbert Is Taking Over Letterman’s “Late Show”

How might we love Stephen Colbert as the “Late Show” host? Let us count the ways.

emptytomb
God’s Not Dead? Why the Good News Is Better than That

The resurrection of Jesus is not a matter of private faith — it’s a proclamation for the whole world.

shutterstock_186795503
The Three Most Surprising Things Jesus Said

Think you know Jesus? Some of his sayings may surprise you.

egg.jpg
Jesus, Bunnies, and Colored Eggs: An Explanation of Holy Week and Easter

So, Easter is a one-day celebration of Jesus rising from the dead and turning into a bunny, right? Not exactly.